200 Australian Women

(1884-1975) Congregational minister

Winifred Kiek (1884-1975), Congregational Church minister, was born in Manchester, England, daughter of Margaret (born Harker) and Robert Jackson, who were Quakers. She won a scholarship to Manchester Pupil Teacher Training Centre at 16, matriculated in 1904, graduated BA from the Victoria University of Manchester in 1907 and then worked as a teacher. In 1911 she married Edward Sidney Kiek, Congregational minister at Newcastle-under-Lyme. She severed her connection with the Society of Friends and became a Congregationalist.

(1885-1964) critic

Janet Gertrude Palmer (1885-1964), critic, was born on 18 August 1885 at Sandhurst (Bendigo), Victoria, only daughter of Catherine (born MacDonald) and John Higgins, accountant. Her brother Esmonde was eleven years her junior. Nettie started writing early, in part to define her own spiritual existence in revolt against her parents' austere Baptist faith. Her education began at home with her mother and continued at Miss Rudd's seminary, Malvern, and the Presbyterian Ladies' College.

(1885-1967) educator

Lillian Daphne de Lissa (1885-1967), educator, was born on 25 October 1885 at Darlinghurst, Sydney, daughter of Julia (born Joseph) and Montague de Lissa, merchant; they were Jewish. Lillian was educated at Riviere College, Woollahra, and became an accomplished pianist. On seeing the transformation of slum children by the Woolloomooloo free kindergarten, she dedicated herself to the education of young children. In 1902 she entered Australia's only kindergarten college, in Sydney, under Chicago-trained Frances Newton.

(1885-1974) trade unionist

Muriel Heagney (1885-1974), trade unionist, was born on 31 December 1885 in Brisbane, daughter of Annie Agnes (born Currie) and Patrick Reginald Heagney, publican and later a carpenter. Her father became a founding member of the Richmond branch (1902) and secretary of the central executive (1904-10) of the Victorian Political Labor Council. Muriel was educated at a Richmond convent and later trained as a primary school teacher, a vocation which she abandoned in 1915. She was appointed as a clerk in the Defence Department and there being no female rate she received equal pay.

(1885-1960) political activist

Adela Pankhurst Walsh (1885-1960), political activist, was born on 19 June 1885 in Manchester, England, third daughter of Emmeline (born Goulden) and Richard Pankhurst, barrister. Adela arrived in Australia from England in 1914 already a veteran of public campaigning in the militant demand for women's suffrage. In Melbourne she joined Vida Goldstein (q.v.) and Cecilia John in the Women's Political Association; she was assisting Vida's campaign for election to the House of Representatives when war started.

(1885-1963) lawyer

Christian Brynhild Ochlitree Jollie-Smith (1885-1963), lawyer, was born on 15 March 1885 at Parkville, Melbourne, daughter of Jessie Ochiltree (born McLennan) and Thomas Jollie-Smith, Presbyterian minister and professor of Hebrew and Old Testament studies at the University of Melbourne. She was educated at the Presbyterian Ladies' College and the University of Melbourne, graduating LL B (1911) and was admitted to the Bar in 1914. Her friends included Katharine Susannah Prichard and Nettie Palmer (qq.v.).

(1886-1975) swimmer

Annette Marie Sarah Kellermann (1886-1975), swimming champion, pioneer of physical culture, film star and vaudeville artiste, was born on 6 July 1886 at Marrickville, Sydney, second of four children of Alice (born Charbonnet), pianist and music teacher, and Frederick Kellermann, violinist.

(1886-1948) politician

Margaret Edgeworth McIntyre (1886-1948), community worker and politician, was born on 28 November 1886 at Maitland, New South Wales, where her father Tannatt William Edgeworth David, geologist, had set up a field camp. Her mother, Caroline Martha (born Mallett), from an English working class back-ground, had been encouraged by her grandmother to train as a teacher and in 1882 was appointed Principal of Hurlstone Training College for female teachers in Sydney. She resigned her post on marriage.

(1886-1975) jockey

Christian Bill Smith (1886-1975), jockey, arrived in North Queensland with two racehorses and established himself as a local identity on country race courses. He was remembered by old acquaintances as a small figure who was very roughly spoken and given to constant swearing. He added to his reputation for eccentricity by refusing to change with the other jockeys. He won the St Leger Quest in 1902, the Jockey Club Derby in 1903, and the Victorian Oaks in 1909-10. For the last four years of his life Bill Smith lived near Cairns as a recluse.

(1886-1968) Labor activist

Mary Margaret Ryan (1886-1968), Labor activist, was born at St Johns Wood, Timaru, New Zealand, on the 15 September 1886, third of eight children of Deborah and Jeremiah Kelly, farmers. Mary's childhood was stamped by the struggles of her family during the 1890s depression. Educated to primary level at a one-teacher school, she excelled at her work but was unable to continue. At thirteen she was managing the household while her mother recovered from the post natal death of twins.

(1886-1955) gynaecologist

Katie Louisa Ardill Brice (1886-1955), gynaecologist, was born on 3 August 1886 at Chippendale, Sydney, only daughter of two children of Louisa (born Wales) and George Edward Ardill, evangelists. She grew up in a household with limited means, deeply committed to evangelism and practical charity. Her mother conducted prayer-meetings on an interdenominational basis, was co-editor of Rescue, a suffragist and matron superintendent of the Home of Hope Hospital (later South Sydney Women's Hospital), where she instituted training courses for nurses.

(1887-1975) headmistress

Frances Cohen (1887-1975), headmistress, was born on 9 June 1887 at Grafton, New South Wales, only daughter and third of four children of Jewish parents, Priscilla (born Cohen) and Algernon Aaron Cohen, physician and surgeon. She was educated at Miss Emily Baxter's Argyle School in Sydney and the University of Sydney, graduating BA (1908), BSc with honours in mathematics and geology (1909), and MA (1913). She had been junior demonstrator in geology at the University from 1909-11, when she was awarded the Barker graduate scholarship.

(1887-1926) businesswoman

Nellie Constance Martyn (1887-1926), businesswoman, was born on 12 June 1887 at Charlton, Victoria, daughter of Lucy (born Partridge) and James Martyn, both from Ballarat. James had been a schoolteacher and a draper before he purchased in 1900 a steelworks at Brunswick, Melbourne, which he renamed the Steel Co. of Australia. He twice became president of the Victorian Chamber of Manufactures, and in 1923 represented Australian employers at the International Labor Conference, Geneva.

(1887-1974) journalist

Alice Mabel Jackson (1887-1974), journalist, was born on 15 October 1887 at Ulmarra, New South Wales, one of eight children of Clara Amelia (born Baker) and William Archibald, school-teacher. She trained as a teacher and taught in New Zealand and Western Australia before marrying Samuel Henry Jackson, a teacher and AIF captain, who fought at Gallipoli. He retrained after the war as an accountant and ran a music shop. A son and a daughter were born to the marriage.

(1887-1965) mining entrepreneur

Deborah Vernon Hackett (1887-1965), mining entrepreneur and charity worker, was born on 18 June 1887 at Guildford, Western Australia. Her father was surveyor Frederick Drake-Brockman and her mother Grace (born Bussell) heroine of the 1876 shipwreck near Margaret River, where Deborah herself spent much of her youth. She was educated as one of the few girl pupils at Guildford Grammar School for boys. She was an intrepid bareback rider, an explorer of caves and later, a skier. On 5 August 1905 she married 57-year-old lawyer Dr John Winthrop Hackett at Busselton. The marriage was happy.

(1879-1964) Aboriginal missionary

Angelina Noble, Aboriginal missionary, was born some time before 1890 near Winton in central Queensland. She was abducted by an itinerant horsedealer, and coming eventually under the notice of the police in Cairns, was sent to Yarrabah Anglican mission, unconventionally attired in breeches, riding boots and stockman's hat and known only by the name of Tommy. Though placed in the mission dormitory, Angelina rapidly adjusted to her new environment. She did well in the school and, when still very young, married Aboriginal missionary James Noble, a lay reader at Yarrabah.

(1888-1982) actress

Enid Lorimer (1888-1982), actress, was born in London into a reasonably comfortable family, the elder of two girls. Interviewed in her old age, she said that Lorimer was a stage name, and that her real name was May Enid Bosworth Nunn. She went to a boarding school in Folkestone and then a finishing school in Switzerland. She believed that she rebelled against the rigid hypocrisy of the Victorian class system while still a young child, objecting to a prohibition on her as a gentleman's daughter from having a merchant's daughter for a friend.

(1889-1970) feminist

Jessie Mary Grey Street (1889-1970), feminist, was born on 18 April 1889 at Chota Nagpur, India, eldest of three children of Mabel (born Ogilvie) and Charles A. G. Lillingston, of the Indian Civil Service. After Mabel inherited 'Yulgilbar' station on the Clarence River in 1896 the family moved to New South Wales. Jessie was educated by governesses and in England. She graduated BA from the University of Sydney in 1910.

(1889-1970) politician

Doris Amelia Blackburn (1889-1970), civil rights activist, peace campaigner and politician was born on 18 September 1889 in Auburn, Victoria, daughter of Louisa Dewson (born Smith) and Lebbeus Hordern. Her mother was liberal, tolerant and attracted to theosophy, but her experience of the effects of the Boer War and alcoholism on her husband and family led her to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Sisterhood of Peace, thus providing a model of social activism to her daughters.

(1889-1946) doctor

Vera Scantlebury Brown (1889-1946), doctor, was born on 7 August 1889 to Dr G. J. Scantlebury and his independent-minded wife, Catherine (born Baynes). A strong supporter of education for girls, Mrs Scantlebury sent Vera to Toorak College, a small private school, where she did well in science. With her mother's encouragement, she then studied medicine at the University of Melbourne, graduating in 1913 and doing her residency at Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

(1889-1984) founder Australia Council

Dorothy Jane Adele Helmrich (1889-1984), singer and founder of the Arts Council of Australia, was born at Woollahra, New South Wales, on 25 July 1889, the youngest of six children of Esther Isobel (born Pepper) and John Hellmrich, architect. (The spelling was later changed to Helmrich). She enjoyed a carefree childhood and was educated at Mosman Academy and High School, followed by a year's commercial training. She dropped the second 'l' in the family name.

(1889-1956) swimmer

Sarah (Fanny) Durack (1889-1956), swimmer, was born on 27 October 1889 at Sydney, third daughter and sixth child of Mary (born Mason) and Thomas Durack, publican. She learnt to swim in the Coogee Baths and trained in breast stroke - the only style in which there was a championship for women. While still a schoolgirl she won her first State title in 1906. Later she adopted the trudgen stroke and by 1911 had changed to the Australian crawl.

(1889-1968) teacher

Lucy Woodcock (1889-1968), teacher, was born on 23 February 1889, daughter of Janet and Thomas Woodcock. She began her working life as a pupil teacher in 1906. She studied as a evening student at the University of Sydney, graduating BA (1922) and BEc (1924). In 1926 she went to England for two years as an exchange teacher. On her return she taught at the Erskineville Home Economics School and was principal there from 1932 until her retirement in 1953.

(1890-1925) actress

Lottie Edith Lyell (1890-1925), actress, was born in Sydney on 23 February 1890, younger daughter of Charlotte Louise (born Hancock) and Edward Cox, real estate agent. She grew up in Balmain, Sydney. Despite the absence of a family tradition of theatrical work, Lottie was allowed by her parents to study elocution and in 1907 she embarked upon a career on the stage. Assuming the stage name Lyell, she joined Edwin Geach's Popular Dramatic Organization (where Raymond Longford was also a travelling player) and toured Australia and New Zealand earning a reputation as a compelling stage actress.

(1890-1964) writer

Zora Bernice May Cross (1890-1964), writer, was born on 18 May 1890 at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, daughter of Mary Louisa Eliza Ann (born Skyring) and Ernest William Cross, an accountant. She inherited literary aspirations from both parents: a strong sense of poetic mission from her mother, and a strain of Celtic fantasy from her father. She was educated at Gympie and Ipswich Girls' Grammar School, and from 1905 in Sydney at Burwood Superior Public School and Sydney Girls' High School. In 1909-10 she attended the Teachers' College, Sydney.

(1890-1976) writer

Madoline (Nina) Murdoch (1890-l976), writer, was born on 19 October 1890 at North Carlton, Melbourne, third daughter of Rebecca Murdoch (born Murphy) and John Andrew Murdoch, law clerk. The family moved to Woodburn, New South Wales, where Nina grew up. She conveyed her love for the bush in lyric poetry which she began writing while at Sydney Girls' High School 1904-07. She taught at Sydney Boys' Preparatory School.

(1891-1983) botanist

Ethel Irene McLennan (1891-1983), botanist and educator, was born on 15 March 1891 at Williamstown, Victoria, second child of Eleanor (born Tucker) and George McLennan. The family moved via East Melbourne to Hawthorn, where her father was employed and later was a partner in Henry Box & Co. Ethel was educated at Tintern Ladies' College, where two teachers, Dr Georgina Sweet (q.v.) and Bertha Rees, kindled her love of botany. She won an exhibition to the University of Melbourne, graduating BSc with honours in 1914, followed by appointment as demonstrator-lecturer.

(1891-1951) artist

Dorothea Foster Black (1891-1951), artist, was born on 23 December 1891 at Burnside, South Australia, oldest of four children of Jessie Howard (born Clark) and Alfred Black, engineer and architectural draftsman. She studied at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts when H. P. Gill was principal; she produced a number of conservative, impressionist landscapes in watercolours. At age nineteen she accompanied her parents on an overseas trip, visiting many galleries, and on her return resumed her studies at the School of Arts and Crafts.

(1891-1983) union organiser

Ellen Imelda Cashman (1891-1983), union organiser, was born on 19 November 1891 at Gladesville, Sydney, youngest daughter of Ellen and Edward (Ned) Cashman, licensee of the Bayview hotel. She attended St Joseph's School, Hunter's Hill, leaving at an early age to start work, first in the clothing trade, then in the printing industry. After ten years she earned 1 pound 1 shilling a week as a forewoman. When women formed the Women and Girls' Printing Trades Union Mel joined and lost her job.

(1892-1964) sculptor

Carola Cohn (1892-1964), sculptor, was born on 25 April 1892 at Bendigo, Victoria, one of five children of Sarah Helen (born Snowball) and Julius Cohn, brewer. She was educated at Girton College, Bendigo, and Bendigo School of Mines, where she attended drawing classes from 1904 and studied modelling from 1910-19. Following her father's death in 1919, she moved with her sister and mother to Melbourne where, from 1920-25, she continued her modelling studies at Swinburne Technical College.