200 Australian Women

(1892-1984) artist

Grace Cossington Smith (1892-1984), artist, was born at Neutral Bay, Sydney, the second of five children of Grace (born Fisher) and Ernest Augustus Smith, solicitor. Her mother was a daughter of the rector and squire of Cossington, Leicestershire, and had studied music in Germany. Grace was a boarder at Miss Connolly's school, Point Piper, and later attended Abbotsleigh, Wahroonga, where she was taught art by Albert Collins and Alfred Coffey and was encouraged by headmistress Marian Clarke, a talented water colourist.

(1892-1982) electrician

Florence Violet McKenzie (1892-1982), electrician, was born at Hawthorn, Melbourne, daughter of Marie Annie (born Giles) and George Wallace. From Thirroul Public School, New South Wales, she went on a scholarship to Sydney Girls' High School. In 1915 she passed chemistry I and geology I at the University of Sydney. Always interested in electricity, she became Australia's first woman electrical engineer after completion of the Sydney Technical College Diploma course in 1923.

(1892-1976) soprano

Gladys Lillian Moncrieff (1892-1976), soprano, was born on 13 April at Bundaberg, Queensland, youngest child of Amy Lambell (born Wall), professional singer, and Reginald Edward Moncrieff, pianist. She attended schools in several Queensland towns and made her stage debut in a school concert. She travelled with her family in North Queensland entertaining isolated audiences, billed as 'Little Gladys - the Australian Wonder Child'. After a period of work in Brisbane, she went to Sydney where she was auditioned in 1911 by Hugh Ward, managing director of J. C.

(1891-1985) journalist and broadcaster

Dorothy Gordon Jenner (1891-1985), journalist and broadcaster, was a daughter of Dora (born Fosbery) and William A. Gordon. Her grandfather was Edmund Fosbery, inspector-general of police. Her father was manager on 'Edgeroi', near Narrabri, and later stock and station agent for the Australian Joint Stock Bank. She was educated at Narrabri, and in Sydney at Ascham and Sydney Church of England Girls' Grammar School. She visited English relatives in 1911-13 and in 1915 went to Hollywood, where she played minor parts and did stunts for Paramount.

(1893-1973) palaeobotanist

Isabel Clifton Cookson (1893-1973), botanist and palaeobotanist, was born on Christmas Day 1893 at Hawthorn, Melbourne, youngest daughter of John Cookson and only child of his second wife Elizabeth (born Somers). She was educated at Methodist Ladies' College, Hawthorn, gaining honours in anatomy, physiology, and botany in the Senior Public Examination. She also developed skills as a pianist.

(1893-1939) politician

Mary (May) Alice Holman (1893-1939), politician, was born on 18 July 1893 at Broken Hill, New South Wales, first of nine children of Katherine Mary (born Row) and John Barkell Holman, a miner. Her father moved to the Murchison goldfields in Western Australia and the family followed in 1896. May was educated at convents in Dongara and Perth. She was a gifted musician, a licentiate in singing and pianoforte. She organised choirs, performed in concerts, plays and fêtes with flair and enthusiasm, and had her own band, 'The Entertainers'.

(1893-1963) United Nations official

Eleanor Mary Hinder (1893-1963), international public servant, was born on 19 January 1893 at Maitland, New South Wales, third daughter of Sarah Florence (born Mills) and John Hinder, headmaster. Educated at Maitland West Girls' High School, Teachers' College and the University of Sydney (BSc 1914), she taught biology at North Sydney Girls' High and gave tutorials for the Workers' Educational Association. She held office in the Student Christian Movement and the Women Graduates' Association.

(1893-1983) ophthalmologist

Ida Caroline Mann (1893-1983), ophthalmologist, was born on 6 February 1893 at West Hampstead, London, second child of Ellen (born Packham) and Frederick Mann, civil servant. Her childhood was happy though plagued with illness; a tonsillectomy performed under local anaesthetic at home first made her aware of a doctor's skills. She was educated at Wycombe House School, took the Civil Service Girl Clerks' examination and entered the Post Office Savings Bank.

(1893-1986) union secretary

Cecilia Moore Shelley (1893-1986), union secretary, was born in Adelaide on 3 January 1893, one of nine children of Honora (born O'Callaghan) and Francis Peter Sheehy, a brewery worker.

(1894-1968) singer

Florence Mary Austral (1894-1968), singer, was born on 16 April 1894 at Richmond, Melbourne, only daughter of Helena Mary (born Harris) and William Wilson, a Swedish carpenter formerly known as Wilhelm Lindholm. After her father died in 1895 her mother set up as a dressmaker. In 1903 she married John Fawaz and Florence took his name. He was a Methodist.

(1894-1987) doctor

Phyllis Dorothy Cilento (1894-1987), medical practitioner, was born in Sydney on 13 March 1894, only child of Alice Lane (born Walker) and Charles Thomas McGlew, grain merchant. The family moved to Adelaide where Phyllis was educated at the progressive Tormore House school and the University of Adelaide. She entered as an Arts student and graduated MB BS in 1918. She also studied art and joined the Student Christian Movement. Phyllis always remained interested in religion, though preferring broadly-based Christian philosophies to denominational adherence.

(1894-1948) union organiser

Doris Isabel Beeby (1894-1948), union organiser, was born on 30 July 1894, one of four children of Helena Maria (born West) and (Sir) George Stephenson Beeby, Labor politician and judge in arbitration. Doris was educated at the Church of England Grammar School for Girls, Sydney, and at the University of Sydney as an unmatriculated Arts student. In 1920 following her father's appointment as a judge of the New South Wales Industrial Court of Arbitration and president of the Board of Trade, Doris became his associate.

(1895-1982) sculptor

Lilian Daphne Mayo (1895-1982), sculptor, was born on 1 October 1895 at Sydney, daughter of Lila Mary (born Jaxelby) and William McArthur Mayo, insurance executive. The family moved to Brisbane where Daphne attended the Eton High School, Hamilton, before studying for a Diploma in Art Craftsmanship at the Brisbane Central Technical College in 1911-13, specialising in modelling under L. J. Harvey. In 1914 she was awarded the Wattle Day travelling art scholarship.

(1895-1980) film star

Louise Lovely (1895-1980), film and vaudeville star, was born at Paddington, Sydney, on 28 February 1895, the illegitimate daughter of Swiss born Elise Lehmann, who had toured Australia with Sara Bernhardt in 1891 before making Sydney her home. In 1905 Louise's birth was re- registered after her mother married Italian musician, Feruccio Alberti.

(1896-1957) journalist

Janet Charlotte Mitchell (1896-1957), journalist, was born in Melbourne on 3 November 1896, fourth daughter of Eliza (born Morrison) and (Sir) Edward Mitchell, barrister and sportsman. She experienced ill health as a child and was educated by governesses. She was a favourite grandchild of Dr Alexander Morrison, principal of Scotch College, Melbourne. The family travelled to England and Europe in 1906 and 1911 and were again in England 1916.

(1896-1972) entomologist

Mabel Josephine Mackerras (1896-1971), entomologist and parasitologist, was born on 7 August 1896 at Deception Bay, Queensland, daughter of Cecilia Mary Bancroft (born Jones) and Dr Thomas Lane Bancroft, medical naturalist. She was educated at Brisbane Girls' Grammar, University of Queensland (BSc 1918, MSc 1930) and University of Sydney (MB 1924). With a Walter and Eliza Hall Fellowship in economic biology (1918-19) she began research in Queensland on tick resistance in cattle, fly- borne diseases of cattle and horses and fatal epizootics in fresh-water fish.

(1896-1980) micropalaeontologist

Irene Crespin (1896-1980), geologist and micropalaeontologist, was born on 12 November 1986 in Melbourne. On the death of her mother in 1902 she and her brother were sent to live with relatives at Mansfield, Victoria, where Irene attended the State primary school, the Convent of Mercy and Mansfield Agricultural High School. Her interest in geological sciences was first aroused by the headmaster, Dr Charles Fenner, an eminent geologist and geographer.

(1896-1971) lawyer

Mary Tenison Woods (1896-1971), lawyer, was born in Adelaide, daughter of John Kitson. She was educated at St Aloysius College and the University of Adelaide where she was the first woman law graduate (1916). She practised as a barrister with the firm of Poole and Johnston with whom she had served articles, becoming a partner in the reconstituted firm of Johnston, Ronald and Kitson in 1919 after Poole was appointed to the Supreme Court. Her 1921 application to be a public notary forced a change in the law: the existing Public Notaries Act did not include women as 'persons'.

(1897-1926) garage proprietor

Alice Elizabeth Foley Anderson (1897-1926), garage proprietor, was born on 8 June 1897 at Malvern, Melbourne, one of five children of Ellen (born White-Spunner) and Joshua Noble Anderson. Though a brilliant engineer who had once lectured mechanical engineering at the University of Melbourne, her father was inept at business. After various ventures, including a trip around the world, a partnership with John Monash and a post at Dunedin, New Zealand, he secured the position of shire engineer at Healesville, Victoria, in 1908, taking a cottage for his family at nearby Narbethong.

(1897-1966) social reformer

Jessie Mary Vasey (1897-1966), social reformer, was born at Roma, Queensland, on 19 October 1897, the eldest of three daughters of Jessie (born Dobbin) and Joseph Halbert, pastoralist. She shared her father's love of the bush, his interest in horses and in buying and selling real estate. She was a boarder at Moreton Bay Girls' High School until 1911 when the family moved to 'Tarcombe', near Aurel, Victoria, when she attended Lauriston Girls' School and later Methodist Ladies' College, Kew. She graduated BA from the University of Melbourne in 1921.

(1897-1984) composer

Margaret Ada Sutherland (1897-1984), composer, was born on 20 November 1897 in Adelaide, the fifth child of Ada Alice (born Bowen) and George Sutherland. In 1901 when George was appointed leader-writer on The Age the family moved to Melbourne, where Margaret lived with her parents, her aunts Jane, Julia and Jessie, and her uncles William and James.

(1897-1981) politician

Enid Muriel Lyons (1897-1981), politician, was born on 9 July 1897 at Duck River, north-western Tasmania, daughter of Eliza (born Tagget) and William Burnell, a sawyer. Her Cornish-born Methodist mother was a member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, an active Labor supporter and later one of the first women appointed justice of the peace in Tasmania. Enid was educated at Stowport and Burnie State Schools and Hobart Teachers' College.

(1898-1983) film producer

Elsie May Chauvel (1898-1983), film producer, was born in Melbourne, only daughter of two children of Ada (born Worrall) and Edward Wilcox, actor. With little formal education, Elsie was initiated into the itinerant life of the acting profession, accompanying her parents to South Africa. At age fourteen she became a full-time stage performer appearing with a number of companies including the African Theatres Trust.

(1898-1974) economist

Persia Gwendolen Crawford Campbell (1898-1974), economist, was born on 15 March 1898 at Nerrigundah, New South Wales, daughter of Beatrice (born Hunt) and Rudolf Campbell, teacher. She was educated at Fort Street Girls' High, Sydney, and the University of Sydney, graduating BA (1918) and MA (1920). On a travelling scholarship to the London School of Economics she studied Chinese coolie emigration for an MSc (1923).

(1899-1968) medical scientist

Annie Jean Connor (1899-1968), medical scientist, was born on 1 April 1899 at Beechworth, Victoria, second daughter of Anne (born Fraser) and John Macnamara, clerk of courts. The family moved to Melbourne in 1907 where Jean attended the Presbyterian Ladies' College and the University of Melbourne, graduating MB BS in 1922. She became resident medical officer at the (Royal) Melbourne and the (Royal) Children's hospitals.

(1899-1982) paediatrician

Kate Isabel Campbell (1899-1986), paediatrician, was born at Hawthorn, Melbourne, only daughter and third of four children of Janet Duncan (born Mill), schoolteacher, and Donald Campbell, shipping clerk. Kate was educated at the primary school in Hawthorn and proceeded to the Methodist Ladies' College on a scholarship. Her parents, of Scottish extraction, were keen to see her gain a good education, and her mother particularly ambitious that she have entry to an independent livelihood.

(1901-1985) novelist

Eleanor Dark (1901-1985), novelist, was born on 26 August l901 at Burwood, Sydney, daughter of Eleanor Grace (born McCulloch) and Dowell O'Reilly, poet and Labour politician. She was educated at Redlands, Sydney, and attended secretarial college before being employed as a stenographer in a legal office. On 1 February 1922 she married Eric Payten Dark, medical practitioner, and from 1923 lived at Katoomba except for the years 1951-57 when the Darks spent part of each year at Montville, Queensland. There was a stepson, John Oliver, and a son to the marriage, Brian Michael, born in 1929.

(1901-1985) actress

Doris Fitton (1897-1985), founder of the Independent Theatre, Sydney, was born in November 1897 in Manila, the Philippines, where her English father, Walter Fitton, a chartered accountant, broker and manufacturer of cigars, had taken his Australian bride, Janet Cameron, in 1894. In 1902 Doris, her elder sister Janet Ethel, and their mother, returned to Melbourne where the climate and education were considered more appropriate for white children than Manila. Walter Fitton died shortly afterwards.

(1901-1983) Aboriginal leader

Pearl Gibbs (1901-1983), Aboriginal leader known also as Gambanyi (in Ngiyamba), was a daughter of Maggie Brown and stepdaughter of Dick Murray, both from Brewarrina. Pearl grew up round Yass (where her mother worked as a domestic servant) and later in the Brewarrina area. She attended racially-segregated schools at Yass and Cowra but otherwise the family avoided direct control by the Aborigines Protection Board, living only briefly on Brewarrina 'Mission' and privately arranging employment for Pearl and her sister Olga in Sydney as domestics in 1917.

(1901-1975) school inspector

Gladys Ruth Gibson (1901-1972), educator and worker for the advancement of women, was born on 29 December 1901 in Adelaide, the eldest daughter of Emma and James Ambrose Gibson, a collector for the Blind Deaf and Dumb Institute. She was educated at Unley High School, Adelaide Teachers' College and the University of Adelaide, graduating BA, DipEd.