Canopy Herbivores

In general, herbivorous insects found in the canopy are not extremely sensitive to management practices, and most species can probably thrive in forests of several seral stages. All of the sensitive canopy herbivores are insects and all are somewhat specialized as to the hosts they select. These could include those that feed on conifer mistletoe or bryophytes that might be found only in mature or old-growth forests. There is a strong indication that most of these are preferentially associated with mature or old-growth forests and the range of all is limited to the range of the northern spotted owl.

Some specialize on conifers, while a few feed only on broad-leafed deciduous tree. One species,Mitoura johnsoni, feeds only on conifer mistletoe, Arceuthobium spp., usually on old-growth firs,Abies spp., although populations in central California have been found in association with Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana).

Some conifer-feeding canopy herbivores feed on more than one host genus, but most are limited to a single host genus or species. For example, Zeiraphera vancouverana is known only from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Egira baueri is thought to feed only on Bishop pine (Pinus murictata).

Within their ranges, these species would be negatively affected by forest management practices that removed stands of mature or old- growth forests.

Order Acari

Camisia carrolli Andre

Order Heteroptera

        Family Miridae

    Atractotomus cooperi Stonedahl

    Atractotomus kolenati (Flor)

    Neoborella xanthenes Herring

    Pinalitus solivagus(Van Duzee)

    Platylygus pseudotsugae Kelton

Order Homoptera (aphids, scale insects, leafhoppers)

        Family Aphidae (aphids)

    Boernerina variabilis Richards

    Essigella critchfieldiSorensen

    Essigella wilsoni Hottes

    Mindarus abietinus Koch

    Superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects)

        Family Diaspididae

    Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)

    Nucalaspis californica (Coleman)

    Puto cupressi (Coleman)

    Stramenaspis kelloggi (Coleman)

Order Coleoptera (beetles)

        Family Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)

    Chrysomela interna Brown

    Pyrrhalta carbo LeConte

        Family Curculionidae (weevils)

    Pissodes utahensis Hopkins

Order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

        Family Tortricidae

    Zeiraphera vancouverana McDunnough

        Family Lycaenidae (gossamer wings)

    Mitoura johnsoni (Skinner), Johnson's Hairstreak

    Mitoura nelsoni plicataria C. Johnson, Rosner's hairstreak

        Family Geometridae (inch-worm or measuring worm moths)

    Cochisea sonomensis Barnes and McDunnough

        Family Noctuidae (owlet moths)

    Autographa corusca (Strecker)

    Egira baueri (Buckett)

    Feralia deceptiva McDunnough

Order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants)

        Family Cimbicidae (cimbicid sawflies)

    Zaraea americana Cresson


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